Exempt Organizations Audit Process Internal Revenue Service
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audit guide for small nonprofit organizations

This would include expenses such as the salaries of secretarial and clerical staffs, the salaries of administrative officers and assistants, travel, office supplies, stockrooms, and the like. In the absence of the alternatives provided for in Section A.2.d, the expenses included in this category must be allocated in the same manner as described in subsection 2.b for depreciation. (b) Institution-wide employee FTEs or salaries and wages applicable to the benefitting major functions (see Section A.1) of the institution. (1) Actual conditions must be taken into account in selecting the method or base to be used in distributing individual cost groupings. The essential consideration in selecting a base is that it be the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to cost objectives in accordance with benefits derived; with a traceable cause-and-effect relationship; or with logic and reason, where neither benefit nor a cause-and-effect relationship is determinable. (2) Departmental research means research, development and scholarly activities that are not organized research and, consequently, are not separately budgeted and accounted for.

(b) A performance bond on the part of the contractor for 100 percent of the contract price. A “performance bond” is one executed in connection with a contract to secure fulfillment of all the contractor’s requirements under such contract. (a) A bid guarantee from each bidder equivalent to five percent of the bid price.


Notwithstanding the constitutional provision, however, Section 30(f) of the Tax Code imposes taxes on the income of non-stock educational institutions derived from any of their properties (real or personal) or their economic activities. The constitutional dilemma created by this provision has yet to be resolved, and the provision in the tax code is still enforced by the Bureau of Internal Revenue. Certain goods and services law firm bookkeeping are exempted from VAT, including medical, dental, and hospital services, except those rendered by professionals. Also exempt are educational services provided by private and government educational institutions (Tax Code Section 109(g) and (h), VAT-Exempt Transactions). NPOs may engage in lobbying activities, but such activities must conform to the norms for acceptable advocacy under Article 19 of the Civil Code.

audit guide for small nonprofit organizations

Non-Federal entities may establish a threshold higher than the Federal threshold established in the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) in accordance with paragraphs (a)(1)(iv) and (v) of this section. (a) Establish and maintain effective internal control over the Federal award that provides reasonable assurance that the non-Federal entity is managing the Federal award in compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award. These internal controls should be in compliance with guidance in “Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government” issued by the Comptroller General of the United States or the “Internal Control Integrated Framework”, issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Subpart E of this part establishes principles for determining the allowable costs incurred by non-Federal entities under Federal awards.

Organizations supporting small business innovation

(1) The type of coverage and the extent of coverage and the rates and premiums would have been allowed had insurance (including reinsurance) been purchased to cover the risks. However, provision for known or reasonably estimated self-insured liabilities, which do not become payable for more than one year after the provision is made, must not exceed the discounted present value of the liability. The rate used for discounting the liability must be determined by giving consideration to such factors as the non-Federal entity’s settlement rate for those liabilities and its investment rate of return. (4) Cost of idle facilities or idle capacity means costs such as maintenance, repair, housing, rent, and other related costs, e.g., insurance, interest, and depreciation. These costs could include the costs of idle public safety emergency facilities, telecommunications, or information technology system capacity that is built to withstand major fluctuations in load, e.g., consolidated data centers.

  • For the amount of the ceiling for cost-reimbursement contracts, the covered compensation subject to the ceiling, the covered employees, and other relevant provisions, see 10 U.S.C. 2324(e)(1)(P), and 41 U.S.C. 1127 and 4304(a)(16).
  • While each financial reporting framework aims to provide uniform procedures and principles to accountants, there are notable differences between them.
  • (vii) Ensure the Federal awarding agency provides annual updates of the compliance supplement to OMB.
  • (8) Adequacy of the contractual agreement for the service (e.g., description of the service, estimate of time required, rate of compensation, and termination provisions).
  • If charged to the award, these costs must be charged to the final budget period of the award, unless otherwise specified by the Federal awarding agency.
  • This includes, but is not limited to, the non-Federal entity’s contributed portion by reason of cost-sharing agreements or any under-recoveries through negotiation of flat amounts for indirect (F&A) costs.

Entries should be distributed across the appropriate periods of time. For example, revenue should be reported in its relevant accounting period. The procedures used in financial reporting should be consistent, allowing a comparison of the company’s financial information.


Although there are different methodologies available for allocating costs, the methodology used should result in an equitable distribution of costs to programs. Organizations must have a system in place to equitable charge costs. In the traditional domain noted in RFC 1591, .org is for “organizations that didn’t fit anywhere else” in the naming system, which implies that it is the proper category for non-commercial organizations if they are not governmental, educational, or one of the other types with a specific TLD. It is not designated specifically for charitable organizations or any specific organizational or tax-law status, but encompasses anything that is not classifiable as another category. Currently, no restrictions are enforced on registration of .com or .org, so one can find organizations of all sorts in either of those domains, as well as other top-level domains including newer, more specific ones which may apply to particular sorts of organization including .museum for museums and .coop for cooperatives.

If small purchase procedures are used, price or rate quotations must be obtained from an adequate number of qualified sources as determined appropriate by the non-Federal entity. (c) The non-Federal entity must conduct procurements in a manner that prohibits the use of statutorily or administratively imposed state, local, or tribal geographical preferences in the evaluation of bids or proposals, except in those cases where applicable Federal statutes expressly mandate or encourage geographic preference. When contracting for architectural and engineering (A/E) services, geographic location may be a selection criterion provided its application leaves an appropriate number of qualified firms, given the nature and size of the project, to compete for the contract. Real property, equipment, and intangible property, that are acquired or improved with a Federal award must be held in trust by the non-Federal entity as trustee for the beneficiaries of the project or program under which the property was acquired or improved. The Federal awarding agency may require the non-Federal entity to record liens or other appropriate notices of record to indicate that personal or real property has been acquired or improved with a Federal award and that use and disposition conditions apply to the property. (c) Exempt property means property acquired under a Federal award where the Federal awarding agency has chosen to vest title to the property to the non-Federal entity without further responsibility to the Federal Government, based upon the explicit terms and conditions of the Federal award.

Reporting Findings and Recommendations from the Audit

(3) Is determined and supported as provided in paragraph (i) of this section, when applicable. (iii) Distribute to all affected Federal awarding agencies any DS–2 determination of adequacy or noncompliance. (2) The Federal awarding agency head or delegate must notify OMB of any approved deviations.

  • A cost may be direct with respect to some specific service or function, but indirect with respect to the Federal award or other final cost objective.
  • If a financial statement is not prepared using GAAP, investors should be cautious.
  • Generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP, are standards that encompass the details, complexities, and legalities of business and corporate accounting.
  • These local governments are not required to submit their plans for Federal approval unless they are specifically requested to do so by the cognizant agency for indirect costs.
  • (c) Exempt property means property acquired under a Federal award where the Federal awarding agency has chosen to vest title to the property to the non-Federal entity without further responsibility to the Federal Government, based upon the explicit terms and conditions of the Federal award.
  • However, a carry-forward adjustment is not permitted, for a central service activity that was not included in the approved plan, or for unallowable costs that must be reimbursed immediately.